What is CPR and how do I perform it?

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency procedure that combines chest compressions with artificial ventilation in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest. It is recommended in those who are unresponsive with no breathing or abnormal breathing.

Before you do CPR, determine if the patient needs CPR before you start by following these steps:

  1. Shake and Shout. Grasp the patient by the shoulders and shake briskly. Shout “Wake up!” and the patient’s name if you know it. Shake and shout for a few seconds, but don’t spend too much time. Move on to the next steps after five seconds if the patient doesn’t respond.
  2. Call for medical attention. Anytime a patient won’t wake up, call for medical attention immediately. Get help on the way as fast as you can by dialing 112 / 10177.
  3. Check for Breathing. Tilt the patient’s head back and look for breathing. If the patient doesn’t take a breath in less than 10 seconds, start CPR.
  4. You can’t hurt the patient by giving unnecessary CPR, but if the patient needs CPR and you don’t do it, the patient will die.


  1. Push on the Chest. Imagine a line between the nipples and put your hands on the center of the chest right below that line. Push hard and fast—about twice per second.
  2. Rescue Breaths. If you have had CPR training and feel comfortable performing the steps, push on the chest 30 times then give 2 rescue breaths. Repeat cycles of 30 chest compressions and 2 breaths until help arrives or the patient wakes up.

If you have not had CPR training or don’t feel comfortable giving rescue breaths, just keep pushing on the chest until help arrives.


In normal cases, CPR will break the sternum and slightly crack the ribs whether the patient is young or old.
However, CPR done badly could fracture more than that, shattering the chest wall, further breaking the bones and could press into the patient’s flesh, causing internal bleeding. You could even press the sharp ends of bones into organs, rupturing them, such as puncturing the lung.
CPR is performed on a sudden cardia arrest victim (the patient is technically dead). So poor CPR can lead to poor circulation and that can end up in that person remaining dead (thus helping the heart die quicker). The patient might be revived but will be worse than dead…vegetative. this could happen even if CPR is performed correctly depending on the patient condition or if CPR started late.